The benefits of storing stem cells from teeth as well as at birth

Why parents choose to bank both types of stem cells
You may already understand that at birth there are two main types of stem cells available; Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) isolated from cord blood, and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from umbilical cord tissue. HSCs are routinely used in treatments for conditions such as leukaemia and other immune conditions, whereas MSCs are widely anticipated to become the future of regenerative health care.

Given their ability to change in to many other types of cells found in our bodies, MSCs are being explored in clinical trials today for conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, stroke recovery and many more.

Increasingly, parents choose to bank cells both at birth and from milk teeth after the child turns 5 years of age, for many different reasons. Read on to find out more:

section-icon-1More samples banked, means more potential treatments are available

As standard, we isolate and store four pieces of the umbilical cord tissue for parents who have chosen to bank cord tissue at birth. Typically, we may release one portion of cells for a single treatment, as the cells can be expanded to reach the required number of cells for therapy.

By also banking stem cells from teeth, a parent will typically have a further 5-6 samples available.
Increasing the total number of samples in storage increases the possible treatments available to your child and other family members in the future.

section-icon-2Increased protection for the family

Having stem cells banked for your child not only protects their future, but could also help other family members. Parents of donors are commonly a 50% match; siblings have a 25% ‘perfect match potential’ as well as numerous partial match scenarios.

Having maximum cells available, by collecting stem cells from all sources including teeth, means more benefit to both the donor and immediate family.

Lab
section-icon-3A second chance to store stem cells

Today the process of isolating cells from tissue at birth is well established. Future Health use advanced pioneering technology to isolate stem cells from the cord tissue for thousands of families every year. Though 95% of samples we process are successfully stored, sometimes a cord tissue sample can’t be stored due to factors outside our control. Most commonly however, the opportunity to bank cord tissue was not available at the time of birth.

Stem cells from teeth present a second and non-invasive opportunity to bank MSCs, in turn opening access to many more potential treatments than cord blood alone.

Dental pulp
section-icon-4How Dental pulp and cord tissue MSCs differ in potential

MSCs from milk teeth are understood to have fundamental differences to those found in cord tissue, making it advantageous to have both available.
With over 50,000 scientific publications on the topic of MSCs, there is a large amount of research available that informs us of the differences between stem cells in teeth and cord tissue.

We’ve collected the most notable below, where you can learn more about the different specialised characteristics and how tooth stem cells could be advantageous to therapies:

The nervous system including:

  • One

    Parkinson disease (Chun, Soker et al. 2016, Raza, Wagner et al. 2018, Yamada, Nakamura-Yamada et al. 2019)

  • Two

    Alzheimer’s disease (Ahmed, Murakami et al. 2016, Ueda, Inden et al. 2020)

  • Three

    Motor neurons disease (Goncalves and Przyborski 2018, Gugliandolo, Bramanti et al. 2019)

  • Four

    Multiple sclerosis (Giacoppo, Bramanti et al. 2017, Moayeri, Nazm Bojnordi et al. 2017, Zhou, Zhang et al. 2019)

  • Five

    Spinal cord injury (Nagashima, Miwa et al. 2017, Yamada, Nakamura-Yamada et al. 2019, Zheng, Feng et al. 2020)

‘Tissue based’ regenerative therapies:

  • One

    Diabetes (Suchanek, Nasry et al. 2017, Yagi Mendoza, Yokoyama et al. 2018, Xu, Fan et al. 2019)

  • Two

    Heart disease (Yamaguchi, Shibata et al. 2015, Chalisserry, Nam et al. 2017)

  • Three

    Liver failure (Ohkoshi, Hara et al. 2017, Iwanaka, Yamaza et al. 2020)

  • Four

    Bone defects (Kong, Shi et al. 2018, Amghar-Maach, Gay-Escoda et al. 2019, Novais, Lesieur et al. 2019)

Key reviews: (Chalisserry, Nam et al. 2017, Goncalves and Przyborski 2018, Raza, Wagner et al. 2018, Yamada, Nakamura-Yamada et al. 2019, Ueda, Inden et al. 2020, Zheng, Feng et al. 2020).

Key ongoing Clinical trials using Dental Pulp Stem cells:

  • 1

    Bone tissue engineering with dental pulp stem cells for alveolar cleft repair NCT03766217

  • 2

    Clinical study of pulp mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of primary mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis NCT04130100

  • 3

    Stem cells from human exfoliated teeth in treatment of diabetic patients with significantly reduced islet function NCT03912480

  • 4

    Pilot trial of mesenchymal stem cells (including DPSCs) for systemic lupus erythematosus

  • 5

    Periodontal regeneration using dental pulp stem cells NCT03386877

  • 6

    Feasibility of the preparation of an advanced therapy medicinal product for dental pulp regeneration NCT02842515

  • 7

    Dose-response evaluation of the Cellavita HD product in patients with Huntington's disease NCT03252535

section-icon-5How are MSCs from teeth and cord tissue different?

CT-MSCs and DP-MSCs do show significant differences in more specialised functions. Being aware of the possibilities, potential and limitations, is essential when selecting the most appropriate source of MSCs for treatment.

DPDental Pulp
CT Cord tissue

UC-MSCs can generate adipocyte derivative tissues? at a greater quality while the DP-MSCs can proliferate? faster and generate a larger number of cells for potential therapies and have a greater capacity for cartilage generation and neural cell generation (Cui, Chen et al. 2015, Yang, Chen et al.

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In a recent protein expression study it was identified that the set of protein and bioactive factors? is different between the UC-MSCs and DP-MSCs to facilitate for different types of treatments and complement each other (Caseiro, Santos Pedrosa et al. 2019).

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In a more in-depth study regarding the gene expression profile, the profiles of Bone Marrow-MSC, Adipocyte Tissue-MSCs and UC-MSCs were similar while DP-MSCS differed in relative gene expression in several functional genes (Stanko, Kaiserova et al. 2014).

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Li et al, have found that the UC-MSCs have a higher immunomodulatory? ability that gives them an advantage and are better suited for cellular therapy for immune-related diseases while the DP-MSCs with the higher proliferation capacity as discussed above as well, are more suited for tissue regeneration-related cellular therapies (Li, Xu et al. 2018).

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Especially for DP-MSCs, the prolilferation rate demonstrated by more than 60 population doublings which higlights the time window to expand cells for a therapy (Huang, Gronthos et al. 2009). Equally, signs of degeneration or spontaneous differentiation of the DP-MSCs were absent which indicates that those cells cannot cause tumours when used in therapies (Suchánek, Visek et al. 2010).

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Key characteristic and advantage of the DP-MSCs is their stronger ability to survive under the microenvironment of oxidative stress?, which can occur during cell therapy treatments (Zhang, Xing et al. 2018)

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A key advantage of the DP-MSCs is that they originate from a region in the brain called the neural crest. Neural crest cells play a pivotal role in embryonic development, giving rise to a variety of cell types such as neurons and glia? of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes? throughout the body, smooth muscle, craniofacial cartilage and bone (LaBonne and Bronner-Fraser 1999, Chalisserry, Nam et al. 2017, Prasad, Charney et al. 2019), subsequently the potential number therapies deriving from DP-MSCs is enormous and can be life-saving for those that have cells available and ready to be used.

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DP-MSCs can be used to repair tooth in-vivo?. In-vivo natural dentin (the inner structure of the tooth structure) regeneration requires the DPSCs to migrate, proliferate and differentiate into a more specialised cell type which then synthesize matrix? to form functional dentin at the damaged sites (Volponi, Pang et al. 2010, Chalisserry, Nam et al. 2017, Itoh, Sasaki et al. 2018). Current focus in research remains the establishment of viable and easily accessible odontogenic cell-sources? such as DP-MSCs that would lead to future bio-tooth engineering achievements (Volponi, Pang et al. 2010, Aurrekoetxea, Garcia-Gallastegui et al. 2015, Angelova Volponi, Zaugg et al. 2018) .

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section-icon-6References
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    Ahmed, N. l.-M., M. Murakami, Y. Hirose and M. Nakashima (2016). "Therapeutic Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Secretome for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment: An In Vitro Study." Stem Cells Int 2016: 8102478.

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    Amghar-Maach, S., C. Gay-Escoda and M. Sánchez-Garcés (2019). "Regeneration of periodontal bone defects with dental pulp stem cells grafting: Systematic Review." J Clin Exp Dent 11(4): e373-e381

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    Angelova Volponi, A., L. K. Zaugg, V. Neves, Y. Liu and P. T. Sharpe (2018). "Tooth Repair and Regeneration." Curr Oral Health Rep 5(4): 295-303.

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    Aurrekoetxea, M., P. Garcia-Gallastegui, I. Irastorza, J. Luzuriaga, V. Uribe-Etxebarria, F. Unda and G. Ibarretxe (2015). "Dental pulp stem cells as a multifaceted tool for bioengineering and the regeneration of craniomaxillofacial tissues." Front Physiol 6: 289.

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    Brar, G. S. and R. S. Toor (2012). "Dental stem cells: dentinogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic differentiation and its clinical cell based therapies." Indian J Dent Res 23(3): 393-397.

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    Caseiro, A. R., S. Santos Pedrosa, G. Ivanova, M. Vieira Branquinho, A. Almeida, F. Faria, I. Amorim, T. Pereira and A. C. Maurício (2019). "Mesenchymal Stem/ Stromal Cells metabolomic and bioactive factors profiles: A comparative analysis on the umbilical cord and dental pulp derived Stem/ Stromal Cells secretome." PLoS One 14(11): e0221378.

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    Chalisserry, E. P., S. Y. Nam, S. H. Park and S. Anil (2017). "Therapeutic potential of dental stem cells." J Tissue Eng 8: 2041731417702531.

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    Chun, S. Y., S. Soker, Y. J. Jang, T. G. Kwon and E. S. Yoo (2016). "Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neuron-like Cells in Vitro." J Korean Med Sci 31(2): 171-177.

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    Cui, X., L. Chen, T. Xue, J. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ji and L. Cheng (2015). "Human umbilical cord and dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells: biological characteristics and potential roles in vitro and in vivo." Mol Med Rep 11(5): 3269-3278.

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    Giacoppo, S., P. Bramanti and E. Mazzon (2017). "The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from unconventional sources: an innovative approach to multiple sclerosis therapy." Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 65(5): 363-379.

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    Goncalves, K. and S. Przyborski (2018). "The utility of stem cells for neural regeneration." Brain Neurosci Adv 2: 2398212818818071.

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    Gugliandolo, A., P. Bramanti and E. Mazzon (2019). "Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?" Stem Cells Int 2019: 3675627.

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    Huang, G. T., S. Gronthos and S. Shi (2009). "Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental tissues vs. those from other sources: their biology and role in regenerative medicine." J Dent Res 88(9): 792-806.

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    Itoh, Y., J. I. Sasaki, M. Hashimoto, C. Katata, M. Hayashi and S. Imazato (2018). "Pulp Regeneration by 3-dimensional Dental Pulp Stem Cell Constructs." J Dent Res 97(10): 1137-1143.

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    Iwanaka, T., T. Yamaza, S. Sonoda, K. Yoshimaru, T. Matsuura, H. Yamaza, S. Ohga, Y. Oda and T. Taguchi (2020). "A model study for the manufacture and validation of clinical-grade deciduous dental pulp stem cells for chronic liver fibrosis treatment." Stem Cell Res Ther 11(1): 134.

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    Kong, F., X. Shi, F. Xiao, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, L. S. Wang, C. T. Wu and H. Wang (2018). "Transplantation of Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Modified Dental Pulp Stem Cells Prevents Bone Loss in the Early Phase of Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis." Hum Gene Ther 29(2): 271-282.

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    LaBonne, C. and M. Bronner-Fraser (1999). "Molecular mechanisms of neural crest formation." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 15: 81-112.

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    Li, J., S. Q. Xu, Y. M. Zhao, S. Yu, L. H. Ge and B. H. Xu (2018). "Comparison of the biological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from exfoliated deciduous teeth, bone marrow, gingival tissue, and umbilical cord." Mol Med Rep 18(6): 4969-4977.

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    Miura, M., S. Gronthos, M. Zhao, B. Lu, L. W. Fisher, P. G. Robey and S. Shi (2003). "SHED: stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(10): 5807-5812.

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    Moayeri, A., M. Nazm Bojnordi, S. Haratizadeh, A. Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, R. Alizadeh and H. Ghasemi Hamidabadi (2017). "Transdifferentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Into Oligoprogenitor Cells." Basic Clin Neurosci 8(5): 387-394.

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    Nagashima, K., T. Miwa, H. Soumiya, D. Ushiro, T. Takeda-Kawaguchi, N. Tamaoki, S. Ishiguro, Y. Sato, K. Miyamoto, T. Ohno, M. Osawa, T. Kunisada, T. Shibata, K. I. Tezuka, S. Furukawa and H. Fukumitsu (2017). "Priming with FGF2 stimulates human dental pulp cells to promote axonal regeneration and locomotor function recovery after spinal cord injury." Sci Rep 7(1): 13500.

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    Nakamura, S., Y. Yamada, W. Katagiri, T. Sugito, K. Ito and M. Ueda (2009). "Stem cell proliferation pathways comparison between human exfoliated deciduous teeth and dental pulp stem cells by gene expression profile from promising dental pulp." J Endod 35(11): 1536-1542.

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    Novais, A., J. Lesieur, J. Sadoine, L. Slimani, B. Baroukh, B. Saubaméa, A. Schmitt, S. Vital, A. Poliard, C. Hélary, G. Y. Rochefort, C. Chaussain and C. Gorin (2019). "Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth with Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Enhances Mineralization Within Tissue-Engineered Constructs Implanted in Craniofacial Bone Defects." Stem Cells Transl Med 8(8): 844-857.

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    Ohkoshi, S., H. Hara, H. Hirono, K. Watanabe and K. Hasegawa (2017). "Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases." World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 8(1): 1-6.

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    Prasad, M. S., R. M. Charney and M. I. García-Castro (2019). "Specification and formation of the neural crest: Perspectives on lineage segregation." Genesis 57(1): e23276.

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    Raza, S. S., A. P. Wagner, Y. S. Hussain and M. A. Khan (2018). "Mechanisms underlying dental-derived stem cell-mediated neurorestoration in neurodegenerative disorders." Stem Cell Res Ther 9(1): 245.

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    Stanko, P., K. Kaiserova, V. Altanerova and C. Altaner (2014). "Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression." Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 158(3): 373-377.

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    Suchanek, J., S. A. Nasry and T. Soukup (2017). "The Differentiation Potential of Human Natal Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells." Folia Biol (Praha) 63(4): 132-138.

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    Suchánek, J., B. Visek, T. Soukup, S. K. El-Din Mohamed, R. Ivancaková, J. Mokrỳ, E. H. Aboul-Ezz and A. Omran (2010). "Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth--isolation, long term cultivation and phenotypical analysis." Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 53(2): 93-99.

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    Ueda, T., M. Inden, T. Ito, H. Kurita and I. Hozumi (2020). "Characteristics and Therapeutic Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Neurodegenerative Diseases." Front Neurosci 14: 407.Volponi, A. A., Y. Pang and P. T. Sharpe (2010). "Stem cell-based biological tooth repair and regeneration." Trends Cell Biol 20(12): 715-722.

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    Xu, B., D. Fan, Y. Zhao, J. Li, Z. Wang, J. Wang, X. Wang, Z. Guan and B. Niu (2019). "Three-Dimensional Culture Promotes the Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Insulin-Producing Cells for Improving the Diabetes Therapy." Front Pharmacol 10: 1576.

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    Yagi Mendoza, H., T. Yokoyama, T. Tanaka, H. Ii and K. Yaegaki (2018). "Regeneration of insulin-producing islets from dental pulp stem cells using a 3D culture system." Regen Med 13(6): 673-687.

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    Yamada, Y., S. Nakamura-Yamada, K. Kusano and S. Baba (2019). "Clinical Potential and Current Progress of Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Various Systemic Diseases in Regenerative Medicine: A Concise Review." Int J Mol Sci 20(5).

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    Yamaguchi, S., R. Shibata, N. Yamamoto, M. Nishikawa, H. Hibi, T. Tanigawa, M. Ueda, T. Murohara and A. Yamamoto (2015). "Dental pulp-derived stem cell conditioned medium reduces cardiac injury following ischemia-reperfusion." Sci Rep 5: 16295.

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    Yang, C., Y. Chen, L. Zhong, M. You, Z. Yan, M. Luo, B. Zhang, B. Yang and Q. Chen (2019). "Homogeneity and heterogeneity of biological characteristics in mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cords and exfoliated deciduous teeth." Biochem Cell Biol.

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    Zhang, Y., Y. Xing, L. Jia, Y. Ji, B. Zhao, Y. Wen and X. Xu (2018). "An In Vitro Comparative Study of Multisource Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering." Stem Cells Dev 27(23): 1634-1645.

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    Zheng, K., G. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Xing, D. Huang, M. Lian, W. Zhang, W. Wu, Y. Hu, X. Lu and X. Feng (2020). "Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes human dental pulp stem cells cultured in 3D porous chitosan scaffolds to neural differentiation." Int J Neurosci: 1-9.

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    Zhou, Y., X. Zhang, H. Xue, L. Liu, J. Zhu and T. Jin (2019). "Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis." Stem Cells Int 2019: 8536785.